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Holy Quran Section > English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran by Maulana Muhammad Ali (Table of Contents) > Chapter 60 (Al-Mumtahanah- The Woman Who is Examined) > Section 2 (Verses 7 to 13)



Section/Ruku 2 [Verses 7 to 13]: Friendly relations with non-Muslims:
Chapter 60: (Al-Mumtahanah: The Woman Who is Examined)
(Revealed at Madinah: 2 sections; 13 verses)

1. Translation:

7 It may be that Allah will bring about friendship between you and those of them whom you hold as enemies. And Allah is Powerful; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

8 Allah forbids you not respecting those who fight you not for religion, nor drive you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly. Surely Allah loves the doers of justice.a

9 Allah forbids you only respecting those who fight you for religion, and drive you forth from your homes and help (others) in your expulsion, that you make friends of them; and whoever makes friends of them, these are the wrongdoers.

10 O you who believe, when believing women come to you fleeing, examine them. Allah knows best their faith. Then if you know them to be believers send them not back to the disbelievers.a Neither are these (women) lawful for them, nor are those (men) lawful for them. And give them what they have spent; and there is no blame on you in marrying them, when you give them their dowries. And hold not to the ties of marriage of disbelieving women, and ask for what you have spent, and let them ask for what they have spent. That is Allah’s judgment; He judges between you. And Allah is Knowing, Wise.b

11 And if any part (of the dowries) of your wives has passed away from you to the disbelievers, then your turn comes, give to those whose wives have gone away the like of what they have spent, and keep your duty to Allah in Whom you believe.a

12 O Prophet, when believing women come to thee giving thee a pledge that they will not associate aught with Allah, and will not steal, nor commit adultery; nor kill their children, nor bring a calumny which they have forged of themselves, nor disobey thee in what is good, accept their pledge, and ask forgiveness for them from Allah. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.a

13 O you who believe, take not for friends a people with whom Allah is wroth — they indeed despair of the Hereafter, as the disbelievers despair of those in the graves.a

 2. Commentary:

7a. This verse makes it clear that the prohibition against friendly relations with the disbelievers was only temporary, to be operative only so long as the war continued. The friendship prophetically referred to here was brought about after the conquest of Makkah. [Back to verse 7]

8a. This verse and the one that follows, revealed as they were at a time when the relations between the Muslims and the disbelievers were most strained on account of the existence of a continual state of war between the two parties, settle conclusively that friendly relations between Muslims and non-Muslims, as such, are not prohibited. It is in the light of these verses that all the verses forbidding friendly relations with the disbelievers should be read, because here the true principle is revealed in unmistakable language, allowing friendly relations with one class of disbelievers and prohibiting such relations with those of another class. [Back to verse 8]

10a. People continued to embrace Islam at Makkah, although there was now no preacher of the faith there. This gradual conversion to Islam continued notwithstanding the bitter persecution of the new converts, which compelled them to flee from their homes. It is an unparalleled example of the deep impression which the Holy Prophet’s truth had made upon the Makkans. The example cited here relates to believing women who .ed to Madinah under these circumstances. These women were not taken unconditionally; it was necessary that they should be examined. In accordance with this injunction we find it related that the Holy Prophet obtained the assurance of such women under oath that they had not left their homes except on account of Islam, and that it was not the desertion of their husbands or the love of anyone that had prompted them to flee (JB, Kf). [Back to verse 10]

10b. The state of permanent warfare maintained between the Muslims and the disbelievers did not allow of any social relationship to be established between the two parties. Hence marriage relationship, between Muslim men and disbelieving women, as well as those between Muslim women and the disbelieving men, could no longer be maintained; each party having returned the dowry, divorce automatically resulted. [Back to verse 10]

11a. It is a case in which a Muslim husband is allowed to recoup the loss sustained of the dowry of a disbelieving wife who has deserted him, from the sum due for the payment of dowry for a Muslim woman who has .ed from the disbelievers and joined the Muslims, or from acquisitions gained in war (Kf). This was necessary because the disbelievers refused to return the dowries of women who had gone over to them. [Back to verse 11]

12a. Most of the commentators think that the pledge spoken of in this verse was only taken by the Holy Prophet after the conquest of Makkah, when large numbers of women as well as men embraced Islam. [Back to verse 12]

13a. The reference is to the Jews. One sect of the Jews denied the Resurrection, to which reference is contained in the concluding words of the verse. [Back to verse 13]



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Chapter 59: Al-Hashr (The Banishment)

Chapter 61: Al-Saff (The Ranks)

Holy Quran Section > English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran by Maulana Muhammad Ali (Table of Contents) > Chapter 60 (Al-Mumtahanah- The Woman Who is Examined) > Section 2 (Verses 7 to 13)

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