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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 06: Adhan And Iqamah (Hadith -- The Traditions)


Chapter 06:
Adhan And Iqamah (Hadith -- The Traditions):

 

(Note: The superscript-numbers [e.g., intention2] that appear in the text [in pink] refer to the numbers of the explanatory footnotes that appear at the end of each Hadith [Tradition].)


1 It is reported about Ibn `Umar that he used to say,
The Muslims when they came to Madinah used to gather together and they made an appointment for prayers; no call was given for it. So they talked about it one day. Some of them said, Have a bell like the bell of the Christians; others said, Rather a bugle like the horn of the Jews; `Umar said, Would you not appoint a man who should sound a call for the prayer.
1 The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said, "O Bilal! get up and give a call for prayer." (B. 10 : 1.)

1 It appears from other hadith that the portion that follows relates to another occasion. A consultation was held but nothing was decided then, though `Umar seems to have made a suggestion that, instead of ringing a bell or blowing a horn, a man should be appointed to give a call for prayers. According to one hadith `Abd Allah ibn Zaid was shown in a vision how to give a call for prayer. So when the Messenger of Allah came the next day, he informed him: O Messenger of Allah! I was half asleep and half awake when there came to me one who showed me how to deliver the adhan. The narrator of the hadith added, `Umar had been shown it twenty days previously but he concealed it, then he informed the Holy Prophet (AD. 2 : 27). Bukhari refers to this by quoting `Umar as saying, Would you not appoint a man who should give a call for prayer. It was, however, the Holy Prophet's order--or maybe, he himself had received a revelation, similar to the visions of `Abd Allah and `Umar as some reports show--which gave the sanction to the adhan.


2 Anas said,
When the number of people increased, they conversed that they should make known the time of prayers by some means which they may recognize. So they mentioned that they should light the fire or ring a bell. Then Bilal was commanded to call out the adhan, repeating the words, and to say the iqamah, uttering the words only once. (B. 10 : 2.)


3 Abu Mahdhurah said,
I said, O Messenger of Allah! Teach me the way of delivering the adhan. He said, So he touched his forehead (and) said:

"Thou shouldst say:
`Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest.'
Thou shouldst raise thy voice with it; then thou shouldst say,
`I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.'
Thou shouldst lower thy voice with it; then thou shouldst raise thy voice with the bearing of witness,
`I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Come to prayer, Come to prayer; Come to success, Come to success'.
Then if it is morning prayer, thou shouldst say,
`Prayer is better than sleep', `Prayer is better than sleep';
(Then thou shouldst say),
`Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, there is no God but Allah.'"
2 (AD-Msh. 4 : 4.)

2 The repetition of the shahadah a second time as stated in this hadith is known as tarji` (lit. returning to a thing again and again). As the previous hadith and the one that follows show, the general practice in the Holy Prophet's time was that the adhan consisted of fifteen sentences. Allahu-Akbar four times, ashhadu an la ilaha illa-llah twice, ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasulullah twice (both sentences beginning with ashhadu are known as the shahadah) hayya `ala-l-sala (pronounced `ala-s-sala) twice (turning the face to the right), hayya `ala-l-falah twice (turning the face to the left), Allahu Akbar twice and la ilaha illa-llah once. The tarji` or repeating the two shahadah sentences twice again in a still louder voice seems to have been resorted to only occasionally. In the adhan for the morning prayer the sentence al-salatu (pronounced as-salat) khair-un mina-l-naum (pronounced mina-n-naum) was added after hayya `ala-l-falah, and repeated twice.


4 Ibn `Umar said,
In the time of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, (sentences of) the adhan used to be repeated twice, and (those of) the iqamah (were uttered) only once, with this exception that he used to say, Prayer is ready, Prayer is ready.
3 (AD-Msh 4 : 4.)

3 As compared with the adhan, the sentences were uttered only once in the iqamah, according to this hadith, the significance being that sentences that were uttered twice in the adhan were uttered once in the iqamah. The iqamah thus consists of Allahu Akbar being uttered twice--in the adhan it is uttered four times--each of the shahadah sentences once, hayya `ala-l-sala and hayya `ala-l-falah each once (without turning to right and left), qad qamati-l-sala twice, Allahu Akbar and la ilaha illa-llah once.

But the iqamah may also consist of all the sentences of the adhan with the addition in its proper place of qad qamati-l-sala uttered twice. Between the delivery of the adhan and the iqamah there is another difference. The sentences of the adhan are delivered leisurely and in as loud a voice as possible, while the delivery of the iqamah is marked by quickness.


5 Sa`d reported that,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, commanded Bilal to put his two forefingers into his ears (when delivering the adhan); this, he said, would help in the raising of thy voice. (IM-Msh. 4 : 4.)


6 It is related about Bilal that he put his two forefingers into his ears (when delivering the adhan), while Ibn `Umar did not put his forefingers into his ears;4 and Ibrahim said, There is no harm in delivering the adhan without performing ablution; and `Ata' said, Ablution is necessary and it is the (Prophet's) practice. (B. 10 : 19.)

4 Forefingers are not put into ears in the iqamah.


7 Abu Juhaifah said,
That he saw Bilal delivering the adhan. (He said), So I followed him when he turned his face to one side and to the other in the adhan. (B. 10 : 19.)


8 Musa said,
I saw Bilal (when) he went forth to the Abtah and delivered the adhan, so when he reached hayya `ala-l-sala, hayya `ala-l-falah, he turned his neck to the right side and to the left and did not turn round.
5 (AD. 2 : 33.)

5 With hayya `ala-l-sala, the mu'adhdhin turns his face to the right side and with hayya `ala-l-falah to the left.


9 A woman of the Bani Najjar said,
My house was the highest house in the environs of the mosque and Bilal used to deliver the morning adhan on it.
6 (AD. 2 : 32.)

6 A high place, the top of a house or a minaret, would carry the voice farthest.


10 `Abd Allah reported . . . that,
Abu Sa`id Khudri said to him, I see thee living among goats and in the desert, so when thou art among thy goats or in thy desert and deliverest the adhan for prayer, raise thy voice with the adhan, for neither jinn nor man nor anything else hears the voice of the crier within its reach but it shall bear witness for him on the day of Resurrection.
7 (B. 10 : 5.)

7 The voice in delivering the adhan should be raised as high as possible.


11 Abu Hurairah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"The Imam is a surety and the deliverer of the adhan is one in whom confidence is placed;8 O Allah! direct aright the leaders of prayer and grant protection to the delivers of the adhan." (AD. 2 : 31.)

8 The hadith speaks of the imam as dzamin, being as it were a surety that prayers are observed in the right manner; and it speaks of the mu`adhdhin (one who delivers the adhan) as mu'taman, i.e., one in whom trust is placed, which indicates on the one hand that he is the keeper of the time of prayer and on the other that he must be a man who is respected on account of his high qualities.


12 Uthman ibn Abi-l-`As said,
O Messenger of Allah! Make me the imam of a people. He said:

"Thou art their imam and do thou follow the weakest of them9 and appoint a mu'adhdhin who does not take any remuneration for his adhan."10 (AD. 2 : 38.)

9 The imam should have regard for the weakest and make his prayer so light that the weakest man may not feel it a burden

10 Islam thus requires that a duty which relates to the prayers should be performed out of love.


13 Abu Hurairah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, commanded us (saying):

"When you are in the mosque and a call for prayers is sounded, let not one of you go out until he has said his prayers." (Ah-Msh. 4 : 23.)


14Abu Sa`id Khudri reported that,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"When you hear the adhan, say what the mu'adhdhin says." (B. 10 : 7.)


15 Yahya said,
Some of our brethren related to me that when he (Mu'awiyah) heard the words, Come to prayer, he said, There is no strength nor power but in Allah, and he said, Thus did we hear your Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, say.
11 (B. 10 : 7.)

11 Hayya `ala-l-sala being an order, the proper response to is that given in this hadith. When the adhan is being delivered, the hearer should repeat its sentences and when it is finished, he should offer the prayer mentioned in the next hadith.


16 Jabir reported that,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said::

"Whoever says when he hears the adhan,
`O Allah! the Lord of this perfect call and everliving prayer, grant to Muhammad nearness and excellence and raise him to the position of glory which Thou hast promised him,'
My intercession will be due to him on the day of Resurrection." (B. 10 : 8.)


17 `Abd Allah reported on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, (who) said:

"Let not the adhan of Bilal prevent one of you from taking his breakfast,12 for he delivers the adhan while it is night, so that he may send back the one of you who is saying his prayer or awaken the one who is sleeping." (B. 10 : 13.)

12 "Breakfast" here means the meal taken before dawn when a man intends to fast. The hadith thus allows the calling out of the adhan before the time of prayer. By prayer in the concluding portion is meant the tahajjud prayer.


18 `Abd Allah reported that,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Between every two adhans, there is a prayer for him who likes." 13 (He said this) thrice. (B. 10 : 14.)

13 By the two adhans are meant the adhan and the iqamah. The interval between the two should be at least such that a man may be able to say two rak`ahs of optional prayer. Another hadith says that there should be an interval such that a man taking his food may finish it, say, about a quarter of an hour.


19 Ziyad said that,
He delivered the adhan, and Bilal desired to call out the iqamah but the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"O brother of Suda'! The one who calls out the adhan shall call out the iqamah." 14 (Ah. IV, 169.)

14 There may be exceptions to this general rule. Suda' is the name of a tribe in Yaman and Ziyad was a member of this tribe.

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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 06: Adhan And Iqamah (Hadith -- The Traditions)

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