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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 04: Purification (Hadith -- The Traditions)


Chapter 04:
Purification (Hadith -- The Traditions):


 

(Note: The superscript-numbers [e.g., intention2] that appear in the text [in pink] refer to the numbers of the explanatory footnotes that appear at the end of each Hadith [Tradition].)


1 Abu Malik said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

""Purification is half the faith."1 (M-Msh. 3.)

1 A pure mind in a pure body is the watchword of Islam. Here cleanliness is not next to godliness but it is half of godliness or faith.


2 Jabir said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"The key to paradise is prayer and the key to prayer is purification." (Ah-Msh. 3.)


3 Ibn 'Umar said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Prayer is not accepted without purification, nor (is) charity (accepted) out of what is acquired by unlawful means." 2 (M-Msh. 3 : 1.)

2 This hadith and the previous one lay down in general terms that purification is a necessary condition of prayer, which in fact means that a man should always keep himself free from impurities, since prayer is said five times a day. The habit of outward purification is thus developed through an institution which is meant to purify the soul, and a Muslim is required to keep his body, his clothes, in fact the whole of his environment, clean. Charity like prayer purifies the mind, and as what is acquired by unlawful means is impure, the pure and the impure cannot go together.


4 Anas said,
When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, went to privy, he used to say:

"O Allah! I seek refuge in Thee from impure deeds and evil habits." 3 (B. 4 : 9.)

3 Khubuth is the plural of khabith (an evil person) and khaba'ith is the plural of khaba'ith (an evil person of feminine gender), and the words are generally understood as meaning the devils, but according to the Nihayah, the first word may also be read as khubth which means impure deeds and the second word may also mean evil habits. Thus from outward defilement attention is directed to inward impurities.


5 Anas reported,

When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, went out for natural evacuation, I and a boy used to go and with us there used to be a bucket of water.4 (B. 4 : 15.)

4 Other hadith speak of stones for cleaning purposes, but water was used when available even after cleaning with earth or stones. These may appear to be minor details, but the minutest details are necessary to develop habits of cleanliness. Water or earth was also used after urinating.


6 `Abd Allah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, went to ease himself and he asked me to bring him three pebbles. 5 (B. 4 : 21.)

5 This hadith and the one following speak of pebbles or balls of dry earth for cleaning purposes. Toilet paper would serve the same purpose.


7 `A'ishah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"When one of you goes to ease himself, let him take with him three pebbles with which to clean himself, for these will suffice him." (AD-Msh. 3 : 2.)


8 Jabir said,

When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, wanted to ease himself he went (to a distant place) until no one could see him. 6 (AD-Msh. 3 : 2.)

6 For evacuating himself a man must not, therefore, sit in a place where he can be seen by others; i.e., when he goes out into fields. Latrines must be made on the same principle.


9Abu Musa reported,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"When one of you wishes to pass urine, let him seek the proper place for urinating." 7 (AD-Msh. 3 : 2.)

7 So there must be either urinals or a man must retire to some other proper place of retirement.


10 `A'ishah said,

The right hand of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, was for his ablution and his food, and his left hand for cleaning after easing himself and for removing noxious things. (AD-Msh. 3 : 2.)


11 Mu`adh said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Abstain from three objects of curse, easing near springs of water and on roads and under (a tree where men sit for) shade." 8 (AD-Msh. 3 : 2.)

8 This shows a high degree of care for public convenience and the protection of public places and water-sources from contamination.


12 Hudhaifah said,

I saw myself and the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, going together and he came to a heap of sweepings of a people behind a wall and he was standing as one of you stands, then he passed the urine.9 (B. 4 : 61.)

9 To urinate in a standing posture is therefore not prohibited.


13 Abu Hurairah said,

When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, went to the privy, I brought to him water in a small vessel or in a leather bag and he used water for cleaning, then rubbed his hand on the ground,10 then I brought to him another vessel of water and he made ablution. (AD-Msh. 3 : 2.)

10 This was done to remove any vestige of uncleanness which might remain on the hand after the simple flow of water. Soap may be used for the same purpose.


14 `A'ishah said,
When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, came out of the privy, he used to say:

"I seek Thy protection." (Tr-Msh. 3 : 2.)


15 Anas said,
When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, came out of the privy, he used to say:

"Praise be to Allah Who has removed from me noxiousness and given me health." (IM-Msh. 3 : 2.)


16 Anas said,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, spat in a cloth of his.11 (B. 4 : 70.)

11 Evidently it was a public place where other people were present and by spitting in his handkerchief he showed that it was not proper to spit on the ground in public places. Besides being indecent, it is insanitary.


17 Anas reported that,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, saw phlegm on the front (wall of the mosque) and it was painful to him to such a degree that (signs of) it could be seen in his face. . .

Then he took hold of a corner of his sheet and spat in it then turned one part of it over the other and said:

"Rather let one do like this." 12 (B. 8 : 33.)

12 The spittle should be taken in a handkerchief if one is overcome in prayer.

SECTION 2.-- THE TOOTH-BRUSH


18`A'ishah said on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him:

"The tooth-brush purifies the mouth and is a means of seeking the pleasure of the Lord."13 (B. 30 : 27.)

13 The Holy Prophet thus taught that outward cleanness was also a means of pleasing the Lord and that uncleanness was therefore hateful to God.


19 Abu Hurairah said, on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him:

"Were it not that I would place too heavy a burden on my community, I would have commanded them to use the tooth-brush at every ablution." (B. 30 : 27.)


20 Anas said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"I have spoken to you about the tooth-brush too often." (B. 11 : 8.)


21 Hudhaifah said,

When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, got up during the night (for tahajjud), he used to clean his mouth with the tooth-brush. (B. 4 : 73.)


22 `A'ishah said,
When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, came out of the privy, he used to say:

Never did the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, wake up after sleeping at night or in the day, but he used the tooth-brush before he performed ablution." 14(AD-Msh. 3 : 3.)

14 The use of the tooth-brush after sleep is essential because there is no access to light or air into the mouth during sleep, and the dirt that has there accumulated must be cleaned at once.


23 Shuraih ibn Hani said,

I asked `A'ishah, What was the first thing the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, did when he entered his house? 

She said, Tooth-brushing. ( M-Msh. 3 : 3.)

SECTION 3. -- ABLUTION OR WUDZU'


24 Sa`id ibn Zaid said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"That man has not performed ablution who does not remember Allah in doing it." 15(Tr-Msh. 3 : 4.)

15 Ablution, which means washing of certain parts of the body that are generally exposed and where dust or dirt is likely to settle, is a preparation for going into Divine presence. The object is undoubtedly twofold, that a man should be clean and that he should feel that he stands in need of the purification of the should as he stands in need of the cleaning of the body. The remembrance of Allah is needed to direct attention to this. The beginning should be made with Bismillah as in the case of all important affairs, while h. 42. speaks of the prayer when the ablution ends.


25 Yahya al-Mazini reported that,

A man said to `Abd Allah ibn Zaid, Canst thou show me how the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, performed ablution? `Abd Allah ibn Zaid said, Yes. So he sent for water and poured it over his hands and washed his hands twice, then he rinsed his mouth and sniffed water into his nose thrice, then he washed his face thrice, then he washed his hands up to the elbow twice, then he wiped his head with both his hands so that he carried them from the front and brought them back-- he began with his forehead until he carried them to his neck, then he brought them back to the place from which he had started-- then he washed his two feet. (B. 4 : 38.)


26 Ibn `Abbas said,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, performed ablution (washing each part) once only. (B. 4 : 22.)


27 `Abd Allah ibn Zaid reported that,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, performed ablution (washing each part) twice. (B. 4 : 23.)

 


28 It is reported about `Uthman that,

He performed ablution at Maqa`id, and said, May I not show you the ablution of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him,? Then he performed ablution (washing each part) thrice. 16(M-Msh. 3 : 4.)

16 The various reports show that there was great latitude in these matter. The cleaning might be effected in some cases by washing once only while in others it might require repetition. Maqa`id, according to Ibn Hajar, is the name of a place in Madinah. According to others, it means a place where people sit together.


29 `A'ishah said,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, was fond of beginning on the right side, in putting on his shoes and in combing his hair and in performing ablution, (in fact) in all actions. (B. 4 : 31.)


30 Abu Hurairah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"When you put on clothes and when you perform ablution, begin with the right side." 17(AD-Msh. 3 : 4.)

17 In performing ablution the right hand should be washed first and then the left. The same rule is to be followed in washing the feet.


31 Ibn `Abbas reported that,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, wiped his head and also his two ears, the internal parts of them with his two forefingers and the back parts of them with his two thumbs. 18(Ns-Msh. 3 : 4.)

18 The complete Mash (wiping) of the head thus includes the ears, their inner side as well as the outer.


32 `Amr ibn Umayyah said,

I saw the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, passing his hands over his turban and his boots. (B. 4 : 48.)


33 Mughirah said,

I was with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, in a journey, and I bent down to take off his boots but he said, "Leave them alone, for I put them on a state of cleanness;"19 then he passed his hands over them both. (B. 4 : 49.)

19 The word tahiratain (both being clean) in the hadith refers to the two feet, but the meaning is generally taken to be that the boots were put on after performing ablution. The next hadith shows that socks are treated similarly, i.e., it is sufficient to pass wet hands over them when they are worn after performing ablution. This may be done for one day and night. i.e., the socks or boots must be taken off and the feet washed once in every twenty-four hours, but in the case of one who is journeying the time-limit is three days and nights. See h. 35.


34 Mughirah said,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, performed ablution and passed his hands over the socks and the shoes. (AD-Msh. 3: 9.)


35 Abu Bakrah reported on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, that,

He allowed one who is journeying three days and nights and one who is not on a journey one day and night to wipe his boots (instead of washing his feet) when he had put them on in a state of cleanness. (DQ-Msh. 3 : 9.)


36 Abu Hurairah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Prayer is not accepted of a man who voids himself20 until he performs ablution." (B. 4 : 2.)

20 The Arabic word is ahdatha which means originally he caused or occasioned a thing, and is technically applied to the voiding of ordure. When Abu Hurairah was asked, what hadath was, he simply said, breaking wind but it includes the passing of urine, stools and wind. To this must be added sound sleep as stated in h. 39 and vomiting (h. 40.), though there is a difference of opinion in the latter case. The reason for a fresh ablution after sound sleep seems to be that one does not know if one has passed wind in that condition. Bukhari makes it clear that ablution is only necessary when something passes out through the makhrajain, the two ways of natural evacuation. The flowing of blood from wounds or the spitting of blood does not necessitate ablution. If a man performs ablution by wiping his boots or socks, and then takes them off, fresh ablution is not necessary (hh. 32, 34). Taking food or milk does not call for fresh ablution, but the mouth should be rinsed in both cases. (B. 4 : 50, 51, 52.)

 There are certain hadith speaking of the necessity of ablution in certain other cases. For instance, there is a hadith which says that ablution should be performed if one has kissed one's wife, but this is contradicted by other hadith. The clear rule laid down by Bukhari that ablution is necessitated only by what passes out of the two outlets of natural evacuation is the safest rule. Sound sleep and vomiting are the only exceptions.


37 Anas said,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, used to perform ablution at every prayer. I (his disciple) said, How did you act? He said, Ablution sufficed one of us until he voided himself. (B. 4 : 54.)


38Anas said,

The companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, used to wait for the night (`Isha') prayer until their heads nodded (in drowsiness), then they said their prayers and did not perform ablution. (AD-Msh. 3 : 1.)


39 Ibn `Abbas said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Ablution is necessary for him who sleeps reclining, for when he reclines his joints are relaxed." (Tr-Msh. 3 : 1.)


40 Abu-l-Darda' reported that,

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, vomited, then performed ablution. (Tr. 1 : 63.)

 


41 It is related about Ibn `Umar that,

He washed his feet after the water, with which he had washed (other parts), had dried up. 21(B. 5 : 10.)

21 There is no harm if there is a little interval in washing the different parts so long as ablution is a continuous act.


42 `Umar said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Anyone who performs ablution and does it thoroughly, then says: `I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, He is One, there is no associate with Him, and that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger; O Allah! make me of those who turn to Thee again and again and make me of those who purify themselves' -- the eight doors of paradise are opened to him; he enters it by whichever of them he pleases." (Tr. 1 : 41.)

SECTION 4. -- BATH


43 `Abd Allah ibn `Umar reported that,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be on him, said:

"When one of you comes to the Friday gathering, he should take a bath." (B. 11 : 2.)


44 `Amr ibn Sulaim said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Taking a bath on Friday is incumbent on every one who has attained to puberty and he should use the tooth-brush and use scent if he can find it." (B. 11 : 3.)


45 Abu Hurairah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"It is incumbent upon every Muslim that he should take a bath (at least) once in every seven days and wash his head and his whole body."22 (B. & M.-Msh. 3 : 11.)

22 Taking a bath once a week, on Fridays, is made incumbent irrespective of other needs. It does not mean that a Muslim should take a bath only once a week; it is the minimum requirement, and the whole body as well as the head must be washed by both men and women, rich and poor, at least once a week. To keep oneself clean has already been stated to be half the faith, and in the hot and even temperate seasons nothing less than a daily bath can serve that purpose, but in the cold season and in the case of generality of people who cannot afford a daily bath, the washing of the whole body once a week is an absolute necessity.


46 Abu Hurairah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"The person who washes a dead body should take a bath." (IM-Msh. 3 : 11.)


47 Qais ibn `Asim reported that,

He was initiated into Islam, and the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, commanded him to take a bath with water and (leaves of) the lot tree. 23 (Tr. Msh. 3 : 11.)

23 This was a kind of disinfectant; soap would serve the same purpose. A man who is initiated into Islam must clean himself outwardly also by having a bath, and this was further meant to serve as a hint that he should henceforward aim at both purity of body and purity of mind.


48 `A'ishah reported that,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, commanded the taking of a bath on four occasions: on account of janabah,24 and on Friday, and in case of cupping, and after washing a dead body. (AD-Msh. 3 : 11.)

24 Janabah (from janb meaning a side) is literally the putting of a thing aside or making a person avoid a thing. In the religious terminology of Islam, the state of janabah arises from nocturnal pollution (ihtilam) and coitus (sexual intercourse) for both men and women. There are contradictory hadith as to whether bath is necessary in case of sexual intercourse when there is no emission, and Bukhari favours the view that wudzu' or ablution is sufficient in such a case, but that bath is better. The person who is in a state of janabah is called junub. Such a man must take a bath before he can say his prayers.


49 `A'ishah reported that,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

A woman asked the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, as to her bathing after menstruation; so he told (her) how to take a bath. 25 (B. 6 : 13.)

25A bath is necessary for women after menses (haidz) and puerpurium (nifas), i.e., the flow of blood after childbirth. During the period of menses and puerpurium a woman is exempted from prayer. Menstruation generally lasts from three to ten days, and bath is needed when the flow stops, after a minimum period of three days. Bath must necessarily be taken after the maximum period of ten days, and if the flow continues after that, it is called istihadzah, and the rules relating to menses do not apply to this state.


50 (It is related) on the authority of Abu Hurairah that,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, met him on a certain road of Madinah when he (Abu Hurairah) was junub. Considering myself unclean I left him, then I went and took a bath. Then he (Abu Hurairah) came, and (the Prophet) said, "Where wast thou, O Abu Hurairah?" He said, I was junub, so I did not like that I should sit with thee while I was in a state of impurity. He said:

"Allah be glorified, the believer does not get impure." 26 (B. 5 : 23.)

26 This hadith shows that the state of janabah is not a state of defilement. The junub can do everything; he is simply required to take a bath before saying his prayers.


51 Anas said,
When a woman among the Jews had her menses, they would not eat with her and would not be with her in the same room; so the companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, asked the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and Allah revealed to him, "They ask thee about the menses." (2 : 222.)
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Do everything except the sexual intercourse." 27 (M-Msh. 3 : 12.)

27 This hadith removes another great misconception. The woman, who has her menses on, is not impure. There is a large number of hadith showing that her social relation with her husband or others members of society remain unchanged.


52 Ibn `Abbas said,
Maimunah said,

I placed water for the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, to bathe with, and he washed his hand twice or thrice, then he poured water on his left hand, then he washed his private parts, then he rubbed his hand on earth, then he rinsed his mouth and sniffed water into his nose and washed his face and his two hands (up to the elbow), then he poured water on his body, then he changed his place and washed his two feet. (B. 5 : 5.)


53 `A'ishah said,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, did not perform ablution after taking bath. (Tr.-Msh. 3 : 5.)


54 Ya`la said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, saw a man bathing (naked) in an open place; so he ascended the pulpit and praised and glorified Allah, then said:

"Surely Allah is the Possessor of modesty, Concealer of faults--He loves modesty and concealing of that in which there is shame; so when one of you takes a bath, let him screen himself from being seen." 28 (AD-Msh. 3 : 5.)

28 That is to say, he should either be in a closed bath-room where he cannot be seen by others, or if he is in an open place, he should cover himself from waist to knees.

SECTION 5. -- TAYAMMUM


55 Abu Dharr said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Pure earth serves the purpose of a Muslim's ablution, though he may not find water for ten years. When he finds water, he should wash with it his body, for that is better." 29 (AD-Msh. 3 : 10)

29 Tayammum from amma (he repaired to a thing) means resorting to earth when one is unable to find water in sufficient quantity for ablution or bath, or when one is unable to use it on account of illness or for fear of contracting disease. If water is available in such quantity as can barely suffice for drinking or preparing food, it is permissible to resort to tayammum instead of ablution or bath.


56 `Ammar said,

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, sent me on some business, and (while journeying) I became a junub and did not find water, so I rolled about on earth as an animal rolls, and I mentioned this to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. He said, "It was sufficient for thee that thou shouldst have done thus;" and he struck his hand on earth once, then he shook off its dust and wiped with it the back of the (right) and with the left or the back of the left with the (right) hand, then wiped his face with both (hands). 30 (B. 7 : 8.)

30 This hadith shows that tayammum takes the place not only of ablution but also of bath. It also shows the manner in which tayammum is performed. The hands should be struck on clean earth, then the dust should be shaken, or blown off, then the back of each hand should be wiped with the other and then the face should be wiped with both hands. There are other hadith which give a slightly different process, but as the object is simply to remind a man that he is going to a Higher Presence, this simple process serves the purpose well enough. Bukhari relates that Yahya ibn Sa`id said that there was no harm in performing tayammum on sabkhah, i.e., on ground on the surface of which salt had appeared (B. 7 : 6.). And generally anything would do, on the surface of which dust might have settled.


57

It is related that `Amr ibn al-`As became a junub on a cold night, so he resorted to tayammum and recited the verse, "Do not kill yourselves, for Allah is Merciful to you" (4 : 29). This was mentioned to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and he did not censure (him). 31 (B. 7 : 7.)

31 It is related in one hadith that the night was severely cold, and the Holy Prophet considered the excuse to be valid. In this case `Amr led the prayers.


58 Jabir said,
We went out on a journey, and a stone struck a man from among us and wounded his head, and he had nocturnal pollution ........ (The Prophet) said::

".........It was sufficient for him to perform tayammum and to have a bandage on the wounded part, then to wipe it and wash the rest of his body." 32 (AD-Msh. 3 : 10.)

32 This hadith shows that when it is harmful to apply water to a particular part of the body, it is sufficient to wipe that part. In this case the wounded man had a bath on the advice of his friends, and the wound got septic and he died. The Prophet upbraided his companions for giving an advice which was not based on knowledge.

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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 04: Purification (Hadith -- The Traditions)

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