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Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (the Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement; the Mujaddid (Reformer) of the 14th Century Hijrah; and, the Promised Messiah and Mahdi) <Please read his biography in the 'Biography' section>

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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 31: The State (Summary of the Chapter)

Chapter 31:
The State (Summary of the Chapter):

Amr means a command or an order; imarah, the possession of command or the office or authority of a commander or a ruler or a king; and amir, the person who commands or rules, or the head of a state. The word imam (originally, a person whose example is followed or who is imitated) is also used to indicate the chief or head of a state, and so also the word khalifah (originally, a successor or a vicegerent, or a prophet's successor). 

According to the Holy Qur'an the Muslim State is a democracy, counsel being the foundation-stone of government (v. 1) ; even the Holy Prophet is ordered to consult with his followers in conducting affairs of state (v. 2). The people are required to elect as their rulers persons who are fit for this office -- to make over trusts to those worthy of them -- and those chosen as rulers are required to be just (vv. 3, 4). Vast knowledge and strong physique are the qualifications which should be sought for in a good ruler, not the possession of wealth (v. 5). The highest authority is that of Allah and His Messenger, so that no law should contravene the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah (v. 6). 

Hadith lays it down that government is needed for the good of the people, the king or head of a state being as much responsible for the welfare of the people whom he rules, as a father or mother for the welfare of his or her children, or as a servant for the property entrusted to him (h. 1). The people's responsibility to the State is to respect its laws and obey its orders, so long as they do not require disobedience to Allah and His Messenger (hh. 2-5). Opposition to constituted authority or rebellion against it is not allowed (h. 6), but the authority of the head of the State may be disputed in extreme cases and he may even be deposed (hh. 7, 8). The Muslim State founded by the Holy Prophet chose the fittest man as his successor after his death, and it was agreed that the State should have a single head who should carry on government with the help of his counsellors and ministers (hh. 9, 10). The Khalifah was a paid servant of the State, like all other public servants (h. 11). No public servant could accept gifts from the public (H. xvi : 18). Those entrusted with carrying on the work of government, including the head, were required to work for the good of the people (h. 12), to be gentle to them (h. 13), to lead simple lives (h. 14), to be easily accessible (h. 15), to be God-fearing (h. 16), to tax the different classes of people according to their capacity, to provide for those who could not earn and to have as much regard for the rights of their non-Muslim subjects as for those of Muslims (h. 17). In his private capacity the ruler was to be treated as any other individual Muslim (h. 18) 


Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 31: The State (Summary of the Chapter)


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