Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of
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The word adab signifies discipline of the mind, or every praiseworthy discipline by which a man is trained in any excellence. Good morals and good manners are the real test of a man's excellence (v. 1 ; hh. 1, 9). Goodness to one's parents occupies a very high place in the moral code of Islam, the mother coming first (v. 2 : h. 2), so much so that paradise is said to be beneath the mother's feet (h. 3). Kindness and love for children is inculcated (vv. 3, 4 ; hh. 4, 5), and suffering on account of them is called a screen from fire (h. 6). Doing good to relatives is a source of blessings in this life and the next (v. 4 ; hh. 7, 8). Wives have their rights over their husbands and they must be kept in good fellowship (vv. 6, 7). The best of men is said to be one who is kindest to his wife (h. 9), and it is recommended that one should help her in her work (h. 10). Muslims are brethren -- members of one body and parts of one structure -- and they must help one another and be kind to one another (vv. 8, 9 ; hh. 11-14); their blood, property and honour being inviolable (h. 15). They are forbidden to hate and boycott one another (h. 16), to call one another kafir or fasiq (h. 17), and to fight with one another (h. 18). A neighbour, whether a Muslim or a non-Muslim, must be treated kindly (hh. 19, 20). One must be kind and generous to one's slaves or servants, who must in all other matters be treated on a basis of equality (hh. 21-23). Looking after widows and orphans is an act of highest merit (hh. 24, 25). Even an enemy must be treated generously (hh. 26, 27). Divine mercy is shown to him who is merciful to God's creatures (hh. 28, 29), even to dumb animals (h. 30). Man must cultivate the habit of being truthful, for truth is the basis from which virtue springs while falsehood leads to vice (v. 10 ; h. 31). Special stress is laid that a man must be fair and forgiving in his dealings with other people, and must avoid everything which hurts them (vv. 11-19 ; h. 32). At the end are given a few verses and hadith relating to good manners (vv. 20-22 ; hh. 33-41).
Many aspects of this subject have been, incidentally, dealt with in the foregoing chapters.