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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 28: Foods and Drinks (Hadith -- The Traditions)


Chapter 28:
Foods and Drinks (Hadith -- The Traditions):


 

(Note: The superscript-numbers [e.g., intention2] that appear in the text [in pink] refer to the numbers of the explanatory footnotes that appear at the end of each Hadith [Tradition].)


1 Anas said,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, sacrificed two rams of a white colour mixed with black; I saw him with his foot placed on one side of their face, uttering Bismillah, Allah-u-Akbar, and he slaughtered them with his own hand.
1 (B. 73 : 9.)

1 The concluding portion of this hadith relates the exact words that must be uttered when an animal is slaughtered. The condition that Allah's name must be mentioned over the slaughtered animal is laid down to make man realize that the taking of a life, even though it be an animal, is a serious matter, and that it is by Divine permission that man does it, not by his superior might. If a man forgets to mention the name of Allah, the meat is still allowed (B. 72 : 15).


2 Rafi` said,
We were with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, in Dhu-l-Hulaifah . . . . So Rafi` said, We expect or we fear the enemy tomorrow and we have no knives; may be slaughter with (the thin edge of) cane? He (the Prophet) said :

"What makes the blood flow, not the teeth and the nail, and the name of Allah is mentioned on it, eat it."2 (B. 47 : 3.)

2 This hadith shows that an animal may be slaughtered with any sharp instrument that makes the blood flow out. The object is that blood which contains poisons should not form part of human food.


3 Nafi` said,
Ibn `Umar forbade (the cutting of) the spinal cord, saying, Cut what is above the bone, then leave (it) until it dies. (B. 72 : 24.)


4 Ibn `Abbas said,
Slaughtering is in the throat and in the pit above the breast between the collar bones.
3 (B. 72 : 24.)

3 There are two ways of slaughtering; dhabh in which the throat is cut from beneath at the part next to the head, while the animal is made to lie down under one's foot, and nahr, in which the animal is stabbed, while in a standing posture, in the nahr (the place where the wind-pipe commences in the uppermost part of the breast). The latter practice is resorted to in the case of bigger animals, such as camels and cows, on account of the difficulty of making them lie down. But an animal that may be stabbed may also be slaughtered. In both cases, it is a necessary condition that the spinal cord is not cut. If, however, the head is cut off by mistake, it does not make the meat unlawful (B. 72 : 24).


5 Mu`adh ibn Sa`d reported,
A slave girl of Ka`b ibn Malik was pasturing sheep in Sal`, and one of the goats was afflicted, so she caught hold of it and slaughtered it with a stone. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, was asked about it, and he said,

"Eat it." (B. 72 : 19.)


6 Zuhri said,
There is no harm in (eating) an animal slaughtered by a Christian of Arabia; if thou hearest him invoking another name than that of Allah, do not eat it, and if thou dost not hear him, Allah has made it lawful, and He knew their unbelief.
4 (B. 72 : 22.)

4 The view expressed here by Zuhri is supported by Ibn `Abbas (Ah. I, 302), who explains the word food in 5 : 5 -- "The food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you--" as meaning the animal slaughtered by them. Only if it is known for certain that a name other than that of Allah has been invoked, would it be unlawful.


7 `A'ishah said,
Some people said to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, People
5 bring to us meat about which we do not know whether the name of Allah was mentioned over it or not. He said,

"Mention the name of Allah over it and eat it."

She said, and they had just emerged from unbelief. (B. 72 : 21.)

5 These people, as `A'ishah explains, were recent converts to Islam, and therefore it was doubtful whether they observed the details of the Law.


8 Abu Th`labah said,
I said, O Prophet of Allah! We live in the land of the followers of the Book; may we eat in their vessels? And (we live) in a land where there is game, -- I hunt with my bow and with my dog which is untaught and with my dog that has been taught, so what is right for me? He said :

"As to what thou askest about the followers of the Book, if you can find (vessels) other than these, do not eat in them; and if you do not find (other vessels), wash them and eat in them.6 And what thou huntest with thy bow, and thou hast mentioned the name of Allah, eat (it);7 and what thou huntest with the dog that thou hast taught, and thou hast mentioned the name of Allah, eat (it); and what thou huntest with thy untaught dog and thou art able to slaughter it, eat (it)." (B. 72 : 4.)

6 Washing was required because they were also used for prohibited foods.

7 The same rule would apply to game shot with a gun. The Bismillah should be uttered at the time of loading the gun or when firing it. If a Muslim forgets to mention the name of Allah, the same rule would apply as in slaughtering, i.e., the game is allowed as food.


9 `Umar said,
The game of the sea is that which has been hunted, and its food (ta`am) is that which it casts forth. . . . . . . . . And Ibn `Abbas said, Eat of the game of the sea whether it is (killed) by a Christian or a Jew or a Magian.
8 (B. 72 : 12.)

8 The reference here is to v. 6 quoted above. The ta`am (lit, food) of the sea is distinguished from its game, and means what is found, the sea having thrown it on dry land, or what is left by the water having receded from it, for the catching of which no struggle is needed. Fish, even if caught alive, is not required to be slaughtered. Eel, frog or tortoise may be eaten, according to some.


10 Abu Tha`labah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, forbade all beasts of prey with canine teeth.
9 (B. 72 : 29.)

9 Muslim adds, birds of prey with claw (M-Msh. 19 : 2).


11 Anas said,
I was giving drink to people in the abode of Abu Talhah, and their wine at that time was made of dates. Then the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, ordered a crier to make it known that wine was forbidden. He said, So Abu Talhah said to me, Get out and pour it out. I poured it out, and it flowed in the streets of Madinah.
10 (B. 46 : 21.)

10 The Arabic word for wine is khamr, from khamara meaning he covered or veiled a thing; and wine is so called because it veils (obscures) the intellect (LL). It is not only the expressed juice of grapes when it has fermented but the intoxicating expressed juice of anything (LL). In Arabia, at that time, wine was generally made of grapes, dates, wheat, barley and honey (B. 74 : 4). Fresh juice of grapes or dates is not prohibited (B. 67 : 72).


12 `A'ishah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, was asked about bit` -- it is a drink made of honey and the people of Yaman used to drink it. So the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said,

"Every drink that intoxicates is prohibited."11 (B. 74 : 3.)

11 Everything which intoxicates is prohibited, whether it is a drink or any other drug.


13 Jabir said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Of whatever thing a large quantity intoxicates, even a small quantity is prohibited."12 (AD. 25 : 5.)

12 An intoxicant cannot, therefore, be used even in small quantities; unless, of course, it is used as a medicine to save life, for which purpose the Holy Qur'an expressly allows the use of prohibited foods : "Whoever is driven to necessity, not desiring nor exceeding the limit, no sin shall be upon him" (2 : 173 ; 6 : 146).


14 Salman reported,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"The blessing of food is the washing of hands before it, and the washing of hands after it."13 (Tr-Msh. 20.)

13 The word used here is wudzu', but it means only the washing of hands.


15 Suwaid ibn al-Nu`man said:
We went forth with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, to Khaibar. When we reached Sahba', he ordered the food to be served; and there was brought to him nothing but meal of parched barley, and we ate (of it); then he got up for the prayer and he rinsed his mouth and we rinsed our mouths.
14 (B. 50 : 51.)

14 Rinsing of the mouth after taking food is necessary, so that particles of food may not be left in the mouth to rot.


16 `Umar ibn Abu Salamah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

I was a boy being brought up in the care of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and my hand was active in the bowl, taking from every side. So the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said to me,

"Boy! Say Bismillah and eat with thy right hand and eat from the side nearest to thee."

So this was my manner of eating afterwards.


17 Abu Sa`id al-Khudri said,
When the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, finished his meal, he used to say :

"All praise is due to Allah Who has given us to eat and to drink, and made us Muslims."15 (Tr-Msh. 20.)

15 A Muslim is taught to start food with the mention of the name of Allah, and to give thanks to God after having finished it. He thus feels the Divine presence when satisfying his physical desires.


18 Abu Qatadah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"When one of you drinks, he should not blow into the vessel."16 (B. 4 : 18.)

16 The words of another hadith (Ah, I, 309) are that the Holy Prophet forbade blowing on food and drink.


19 Jabir said,
Abu Humaid brought a cup of milk from Naqi`, and the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said to him :

"Why didst thou not cover it? Thou shouldst have placed a piece of wood on it." (B. 74 : 11.)


20 Jabir reported,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"When you go to sleep, put out the lamp and shut the doors and cover the mouths of water-skins and cover food and drink." (B. 74 : 21.)


21 Ja`far ibn `Amr reported,
His father informed him that he saw the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, cutting (meat) from the shoulder of a goat. Then he was invited to prayer, so he threw away the knife and said prayers and did not perform ablutions.
17 (B. 4 : 50.)

17 It is not forbidden to help oneself in eating with a spoon or a fork, as the Holy Prophet helped himself with a knife in this case.


22 Hudhaifah said,
. . . . . I heard the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, say :

"Do not wear silk or silk brocade, and do not drink in vessels of gold and silver, and do not eat in bowls made of them; for they are for them in this life and for us in the next." 18 (B. 70 : 29.)

18 These are luxuries which can be enjoyed by the rich at the expense of the poor; hence they are forbidden to a Muslim.


23 `Abd Allah ibn `Umar said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said :

"When a person is invited (to a meal) and he does not accept (or reply), he disobeys Allah and His Messenger; and he who goes (to a feast) without being invited enters as a thief and goes forth as a raider." (AD. 26 : 1.)

24 Abu Hurairah reported on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him :

"When the servant brings to one of you his food, then if he does not make him sit with him (to eat at the same table), let him give him a morsel or two morsels, for he has laboured to prepare it.19 (B. 49 : 18.)

19 To make the servant sit at the same table with his master shows the extent to which the Islamic brotherhood minimizes differences of rank and wealth.


25 `Umar said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"Eat together and do not eat separately, for the blessing is with the company."20 (IM-Msh. 20 : 1.)

20 Islam thus requires even the people of a household to take their food together.


26 Ja`far ibn Muhammad reported on the authority of his father.
When the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, ate in the company of (other) people, he was the last of them (to finish) eating.
21 (Msh. 20 : 1.)

21 This hadith and the one that follows relate to good manners in eating. The man who eats less than his companion should eat slowly, so that he finishes along with his companions.


27 Ibn `Umar said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"When food is placed (before a company), no one should get up until the food is removed; nor should any one raise up his hand (from the food), though he may have satisfied his hunger, until the people have finished -- and he should offer an excuse -- for this causes his companion to become ashamed, so he withholds his hand though he may still need food." (IM-Msh. 20 : 1.)

28 Abu Hurairah said,
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"It is the sunnah that a man should accompany his guest to the door of the house." (IM-Msh. 20 : 1.)
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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 28: Foods and Drinks (Hadith -- The Traditions)

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