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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 22: Buying and Selling (Summary of the Chapter)


Chapter 22:
Buying and Selling (Summary of the Chapter):


The Arabic word for trading in bai` which means both buying and selling. Every man must earn his own living (v. 1 ; h.1) and every profession is, therefore, honourable, even that of the hewer of wood (H. xvi : 8). A man may follow any worldly pursuit that he likes but duty to Allah shall take precedence of all other duties (v. 3 ; h. 2). Among means of livelihood, trade occupies the most prominent place, the honest merchant being one of the righteous servants of Allah (v. 2 ; h.3). The seller is required to be just in weighing (v. 5), generous in dealing (h. 4), giving respite even to those in easy circumstances and forgiving those in straitened circumstances (h. 5). If there is a defect in the thing sold, it must be made manifest to the purchaser (h. 6). Two kinds of sale prevalent before Islam, munabadhah and mulamasah, in which the purchaser was deprived of the occasion to examine the thing purchased, were made unlawful (h. 7). The taking of oaths in selling things is forbidden (h. 8). Special directions are given as to the sale of cereals, because they are the prime need of every man, rich or poor. They should be sold in the market so that they may be had at the price which the producer obtained (h. 9). Speculation in this prime need of humanity is disallowed, it being necessary that cereals shall be sold only after their possession has been obtained (h. 10). The withholding of cereals to raise their price artificially is prohibited (h. 11). Najsh or deceiving a purchaser through a third party offering a higher price is forbidden (h. 12), but auction or open sale to the highest bidder is allowed (h. 13). Similarly enhancing the price of milch animals by leaving them unmilked before their sale is forbidden (h. 14). Advance prices or earnest money could be paid only when the measure or weight and time of delivery were definitely settled (h. 15). Immovable property, it is recommended, should only be sold if the seller intends investing money in other immovable property (h. 16). Trade in idols and in things which are forbidden as food, such as wine, swine and that which dies of itself, is disallowed (h. 17), but as there is an express direction that the skin of a dead animal should not be thrown away and advantage should be derived therefrom (h. 18), trade in it is evidently not prohibited, and the same rule may be followed in other things prohibited as food, such as the bones and fat of a dead animal, etc.

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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 22: Buying and Selling (Summary of the Chapter)

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