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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 18: Pilgrimage (Hadith -- The Traditions)


Chapter 18:
Pilgrimage (Hadith -- The Traditions):


 

(Note: The superscript-numbers [e.g., intention2] that appear in the text [in pink] refer to the numbers of the explanatory footnotes that appear at the end of each Hadith [Tradition].)


1 Ibn `Abbas reported,
Al-Aqra` asked the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, O Messenger of Allah! Is the pilgrimage to be performed every year or only once? He said :

"Only once; and whoever does it more than once, it is supererogatory." (AD. 11 : 1.)


2 Ibn `Abbas said,
Fadzl was riding behind the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, when a woman of (the tribe of) Khath`am came...........and she said, O Messenger of Allah! The ordinance regarding pilgrimage made obligatory by Allah for His servants found my father a very old man unable to sit firmly on a riding camel, shall I perform a pilgrimage on his behalf? He said, "Yes". And this happened in the Farewell Pilgrimage.
(B. 25 : 1.)


3 Ibn `Abbas said,
The people of Yaman used to go to pilgrimage while they had no provisions with them and they said, We are those who trust (in Allah). But when they came to Makkah they begged of people, so Allah revealed : "And make provision, for the benefit of provision is the guarding oneself." (B. 25 : 6.)


4 Ibn `Umar said,
The months of hajj are Shawwal and Dhul-l-Qa`dah and (the first) ten days of Dhu-l-Hijjah. And Ibn `Abbas said, It is the Sunnah that a man shall not enter the state of ihram
1 except in the months of pilgrimage. (B. 25 : 33.)

1 Ihram, (from haram, a forbidden thing) signifies entering upon a state that causes what is allowed before to be forbidden or unlawful, and it is technically used to indicate the condition in which the pilgrim is required to put himself. What acts or things become forbidden in the state of ihram is explained here and in the three hadith that follow.


5 Ibn `Umar reported about the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him,
A man asked him, What should a man wear in the state of ihram? He said:

He shall not wear shirt, nor turban, nor trousers, nor head-gear, nor any cloth dyed with wars or saffron; and if he does not find shoes, let him wear leather stockings, and he should cut them off so that they may be lower than the ankles."2 (B. 3 : 53.)

2 This hadith explains what the pilgrim should not wear when he enters upon a state of ihram. Men wore only two seamless sheets, a sheet reaching from the navel to below the knees, (izar) and a sheet which covers the upper part of the body (rida'), while women wore their ordinary simple garments. Wars is a plant with which clothes are dyed. Clothes dyed red or yellow are thus forbidden.


6 Ibn `Abbas said,
One in a state of ihram may smell sweet-smelling plants, and look in the looking-glass, and use medicines out of what he eats, (such as) olive oil and butter; and `Ata' said, He can wear a ring and carry a purse; and Ibn `Umar made circuits, while he was in a state of ihram, and he had girdled his belly with a cloth; and `A'ishah's opinion was that there was no harm in wearing knicker-bockers.
3 (B. 25 : 18.)

3 Bukhari explains that `A'ishah allowed knicker-bockers only for those who drove her riding camel. Trousers are allowed when an izar cannot be had (B. & M-Msh. 11 : 11).


7 Ibn `Umar reported,
He heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, forbidding women in a state of ihram wearing gloves, and veil, and garments dyed with wars and saffron, and (saying) that they might wear besides this what they liked of garments coloured with safflower, or made of silk (or silk and wool), or ornaments, or trousers, or shirt.
4 (AD. 11 : 29.)

4 The veil was worn in Arabia as a mark of rank; and it was, therefore, disallowed when a woman was in a state of ihram, as pilgrimage required the obliteration of all differences of rank. Forbidding a veil in pilgrimage is further a conclusive proof that the Holy Qur'an did not enjoin the wearing of veil, as in that case the prohibition here stated would be a contradiction of the Holy Qur'an. Gloves are not allowed because like the veil they are a mark of rank. Ornaments are allowed because they are not a mark of rank, and are worn by even ordinary people and labouring classes.


8 `Abd Allah said,
I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, uttering labbaika with glued hair.
5 (B. 25 : 19.)

5 Talbid is the putting upon one's head gum or something glutinous, in order that the hair might become compact. This is allowed in the state of ihram, lest the hair should become dishevelled or dusty.


9 Ibn `Abbas said,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, appointed for the people of Madinah Dhu-l-Hulaifah as the place where they should enter into the state of ihram; for the people of Syria, Juhfah; for the people of Najd, Qarn al-Manazil; and for the people of Yaman, Yalamlam. There are for them and for those who come upon them from other places, of those who have determined the performance of the hajj and `umrah; and for him who is on the nearer side (of Makkah), the appointed place is from where he starts, so that for the people of Makkah it is Makkah.
6 (B. 25 : 7.)

6 When the pilgrims reach the places mentioned or places opposite them in the sea, they enter into the state of ihram. Such a place is called miqat, an appointed place, or muhill, the place of raising voices with labbaika.


10 Ibn `Umar reported,
The uttering of labbaika
7 by the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, was thus:

"I am at Thy service, O Allah! I am at Thy service. "I am at Thy service; Thou hast no associate, I am at Thy service.

"Thine is the praise and Thine the favour and Thine the kingdom, Thou hast no associate." (B. 25 : 26.)

7 Labbaika (from labb-un, obeying or serving) means, I am at thy service or I wait intent upon obedience to thee, or I am in attendance upon thee, or I am in thy presence, time after time (LL.) These are the oft-repeated words of the pilgrim when he enters upon a state of ihram.


11 Urwah said,
`A'ishah informed me that when the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, entered (Makkah on pilgrimage), the first thing that he did was that he performed ablutions, then he made circuits (round the Ka`bah),
8 and there was no `umrah. (B. 25 : 62.)

8 This is called tawaf al-qudum. Tawaf (from tafa, he went round) is technically going round the Ka`bah. The tawaf consists of seven circuits. (h. 18).


12 Ibn Juraij reported,
When Ibn Hisham forbade women making circuits along with men, `Ata' said, How dost thou forbid them while the wives of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, made circuits along with men? I said, Was it after the (verses relating to) curtain (were revealed) or before (it)? He said, By my life! I found this after the curtain (orders). I said, How did men mix with them? He said, They did not mix with them; `A'ishah used to make circuits remaining aside from the men, not mixing with them; ... but when they intended to go into the (Sacred) House, they stopped before entering (it) till the men were turned out.
9 (B. 25 : 63.)

9 This hadith shows that men and women performed the different acts of devotion together; only the women did not mix with men, just as in prayer in mosques they formed separate ranks. It further shows that a change was already coming over the simplicity of the Holy Prophet's time, and already men were thinking of enforcing stricter measures for the seclusion of women, and restraining their freedom. In fact, this was a necessary outcome of the ease which Muslims began to enjoy on account of their conquests.


13 Ibn `Abbas said,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, made circuits of the House riding on a camel; and every time that he came to the Corner, he made a sign with something which he had with him and said, Allahu Akbar.
10 (B. 25 : 61.)

10 The Ka`bah has four corners (arkan, sing. rukn) : the Black Stone called here al-Rukn, the Corner, but generally known as al-hajar al-aswad or the Black Stone, and the corners on the Yaman side are known as the Yamani corners; the other two being the Shami (on the side of Syria) and the `Iraqi (on the side of Mesopotamia). The circuit is commenced at the Black Stone which is the corner-stone of the Ka`bah -- it is often called al-Rukn or the Corner. The other corners may also be kissed, but the kissing of the Black Stone, the corner-stone of the Ka`bah, is one of the chief features of pilgrimage. Jesus Christ was referring to this very stone when he said, "The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner" (Matt, 21 : 42). It is, in fact, an emblem, a token, that part of the progeny of Abraham, Ishmael and his descendants, which was rejected by the Israelites, was to become the corner-stone of the Kingdom of God. That there is no idea at all of Divine honour being paid to the Black Stone in kissing it, is shown by the next two hadith. See also B. 25 : 58.


14 Ibn `Umar reported,
`Umar said, speaking of the Corner (the Black Stone), I call Allah to witness that I know that thou art a stone -- thou canst not harm or profit; and if I had not seen the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, kissing thee, I would not have kissed thee, then he kissed it. (B. 25 : 56.)

15 Ibn `Umar said,
I have not given up the kissing of these two corners,
11 in difficulty and in ease, since I saw the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, kissing them both. (B. 25 : 56.)

11 The Shami and the `Iraqi corners. This shows that all four corners were kissed.


16 Ibn `Abbas reported,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said:

"The making of circumambulations round the House is like prayer except that you talk in it; and whoever talks in it, let him not talk anything but good." 12 (Tr. -- Msh. 11 : 3.)

12 Tawaf is compared to prayer to show that the mind must be entirely engrossed with the idea of Divine presence. This comparison further draws attention to the fact that outward purity is as necessary in tawaf as in prayer.


17 `A'ishah said,
We went out with nothing in view but hajj and when we reached Sarif, I menstruated. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, entered upon me and I was weeping. He said,

"What is the matter with thee? Hast thou menstruated?"

I said, Yes. He said:

"This is a matter that Allah has ordained for the daughters of Adam, so do what the pilgrims do, except that thou shalt not make circuits round the House." (B. 6 : 1.)


18 Ibn `Umar reported,
When the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, made circuits in the hajj and the `umrah, on first coming (to Makkah), he started with three circuits at a fast pace, and made four circuits walking; then he said two rak`as of prayer; then he ran between the Safa and the Marwah.
13 (B. 25 : 62.)

13 Safa and Marwah are two little hills near Makkah. This devotional act of hajj is called sa`y. The running between Safa and Marwah, is performed seven times (B. 25 : 79.) The limits are indicated by two minarets. In the case of `umrah, the pilgrim gets out of the state of ihram with the sa`y.


19 Jabir said,
We came with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and we were not in a state of ihram till the day of tarwiyah, and with Makkah to our back we uttered labbaika for the hajj.
14 (B. 25 : 81.)

14 Tarwiyah means watering or satisfying the thirst, and the 8th of Dhu-l-Hijjah is so called because on that day the pilgrims provide themselves with water for the following days which are to be spent in Mina and `Arafat. The hajj proper thus begins on the 8th Dhu-l-Hijjah and pilgrims who get out of the state of ihram on performing the `umrah, enter into ihram for hajj on this date.


20 `Abd al-`Aziz said,
I asked Anas, Inform me about something which thou hast known about the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, where did he say the Zuhr and the `Asr prayers on the day of tarwiyah? He said, At Mina.(B. 25 : 82.).)


21 Salim reported,
Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, in the year in which he attacked Ibn al-Zubair, asked `Abd Allah, How dost thou do in the halting-place on the day of `Arafah?
15 Salim said, If thou wilt follow the Sunnah, say the prayer at an early hour on the day of `Arafah. Then `Abd Allah ibn `Umar said, He is right; they used to combine the Zuhr and `Asr prayers according to Sunnah.16 (B. 25 : 88.)

15 The `Arafah is the ninth day of Dhu-l-Hijjah. The pilgrims remain in Mina on the 8th, and on the ninth they proceed to `Arafat about nine miles from Makkah. `Arafah is derived from `arf which means knowledge. 

The halting at `Arafat is called wuquf. It lasts only for a few hours, from afternoon till sunset, but is the most important of the devotional acts of hajj so much so that there is no hajj without it. A sermon is here delivered by the imam on the mount known as the Jabal al-Rahmah (The Mountain of Mercy).

In the pre-Islam days, the Quraish did not go to `Arafat, as they considered themselves superior to the other tribes. Islam obliterated this distinction (2 : 197 ; B. 25 : 91).

16 Mina is left at noon on the 9th, and the Zuhr and `Asr prayers are combined in `Arafat where the pilgrims stay till sunset.


22 Ibn `Umar said,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, combined the Maghrib and `Isha' prayers at Muzdalifah -- the iqama was called out for each one of them; and he did not say any supererogatory prayer between them, nor after any one of them.
17 (B. 25 : 96.)

17 After returning from `Arafat, the night is passed at Muzdalifah which is also called Jam`. Here the Maghrib and `Isha' prayers are combined, and then the morning prayer is said at a very early hour. The sunnah or supererogatory part is dropped when the prayers are combined.


23 `Amr ibn Maimun said,
I was present with `Umar; he said the morning prayer at Muzdalifah.
(B. 25 : 100.)


24 Ibn `Umar said,
In the Farewell pilgrimage the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, profited by combining the `umrah with the hajj ................. So he performed the tawaf when he came to Makkah; and the first thing that he did was that he kissed the Corner, then he ran in the first three circumambulations and walked in four; then when he had finished the tawaf of the House, he said two rak`ahs of prayer near the Standing-place (of Abraham), then he uttered taslim; and when he had done this, he came to the Safa, and made tawaf of the Safa and the Marwah seven times; then nothing that was forbidden to him (in ihram) became lawful to him until he completed his hajj, and sacrificed the animal on the day of Sacrifice,
18 and he returned and performed the tawaf of the House;19 then everything that was forbidden to him (in ihram) became lawful for him. (B. 25 : 104.)

18 The day of Sacrifice is the 10th Dhu-l-Hijjah. Animals are sacrificed at about breakfast time.

19 This is called the tawaf al-ifadzah, i.e., the tawaf after returning from `Arafat.


25 `Ali said,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, appointed me, so I superintended the sacrifice of camels; and he ordered me so I distributed their flesh; then he ordered me and I distributed their coverings and their skins.
20 (B. 25 : 120.)

20 The same rule should be followed in relation to the `Id sacrifices. Organized properly, the institution would be a source of immense strength financially.


26 Jabir said,
We used not to eat of the flesh of our sacrifices beyond the three days of Mina; then the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, gave us permission and said :

"Eat and take it as a provision (for the journey)." So we ate and took it as a provision. 21 (B. 25 : 124.)

21 Thus the flesh of the sacrificed animals may even be dried and kept for use when one likes.


27 `Abd Allah said,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and a party of his companions, had their heads shaven, and some of them had their hair clipped.
22 (B. 25 : 127.)

22 The shaving of heads or the clipping of hair is a sign that the state of ihram is over.


28 Ibn `Abbas reported,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, used to visit the House in the days of Mina.
23 (B. 25 : 129.)

23 The days of Mina are the tenth of Dhu-l-Hijjah and the following two or three days, the latter being called ayyam al-tashriq.


29 Jabir reported,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, threw stones in the forenoon on the day of Sacrifice, and after this he threw stones in the afternoon.
24 (B. 25 : 134.)

24 The throwing of stones is described in detail in B. 25 : 142. It was a reminder of the spiritual fight which a man must be prepared to wage against evil. The throwing of stones teaches the lesson that man must learn to hate evil, and that he should try to keep the Devil at a stone's throw.


30 Anas reported,
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, said the Zuhr and the `Asr and the Maghrib and the `Isha' prayers, then slept a little at Muhassab; then he rode to the House and performed tawaf.
25 (B. 25 : 144.)

25 Muhassab is in Mina. The tawaf spoken of here is called the tawaf al-wada` or the tawaf of departure from Makkah.


31 Ibn `Abbas reported,
Dhu-l-Majaz and `Ukaz were markets for trade (during the pilgrimage) in the days of Ignorance. When Islam came, they (the Muslims) disliked this until it was revealed : "There is no blame on you if you seek bounty from your Lord", (that is to say), at the time of pilgrimage.
26 (B. 25 : 150.)

26 Material advantages may thus be combined with the great spiritual lesson learned in hajj.

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Hadith Section > A Manual of Hadith > Chapter 18: Pilgrimage (Hadith -- The Traditions)

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