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Accusations Answered Section > Some Questions Addressed to Islamic Religious Leaders, Scholars and Theological Experts


Some Questions Addressed to Islamic Religious Leaders, Scholars and Theological Experts:


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The Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha'at-e-Islam (Lahore) Fiji once produced a leaflet written in Urdu which directed some questions at the present-day Islamic religious leaders and theological experts in connection with the beliefs of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement and the declaration of Ahmadis in Pakistan as non-Muslims. This leaflet has been translated into English by the Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha'at Islam U.K.

It follows:


Section 1 [Who is a Muslim?]:

1. What is the positive definition of a Muslim?

2. From the time of the Holy Prophet Muhammad till the present day, what declaration have non-Muslims had to make to become Muslims?

3. Does a political legislature have the authority to declare that the religion of a person, or a community, is other than what that person, or community, claims? For instance, if someone claims to be a Christian or a Hindu or a Muslim, would it be legal and correct for some Assembly or Parliament to decide that he is not a Christian or a Hindu or a Muslim but of some religion determined by that body?

4. Is every decision of a Muslim government right and correct in terms of the Islamic law (Shari`ah)? And is it necessary for a Muslim to believe in all such decisions?

5. If every decision of a Muslim government is correct and according to Shari'ah, then does this mean that the decisions against lmam Hussain (Alai-his-salaam), Imam Abu Hanifah (Rehmat Ullah Alai), Imam Ahmad Hambal (Rehmat Ullah Alai), etc., by the Muslim governments of their times were correct? And, do you believe in these decisions being correct even now?

6. If the Parliament of a Muslim country has the right referred to in Question 3 above, then would a non-Muslim government also have the right to declare that its Muslim subjects were, in fact not Muslim but Hindus or Christians? If not, why not?

Note: Also read 'Part #2' to these questions;
relating to 'Who is a Muslim?'.


Section 2 [The Terms Nabi, Rasul, ...]:

7. What, according to the Holy Qur'an, is the definition of a prophet (nabi)?

8. In the Holy Qur'an, are the words rasul and mursal (messenger of God) used in their technical sense wherever they occur, or are there any places where they have been used in their lexicological, or metaphorical, sense? What have the savants of Islam written about them?

9. In the Holy Qur'an, the Hadith, and the books of the elders of Islam, are the words rasul, mursal (messenger of God), nabi (prophet), and Ka-anbiya' (like unto prophets) ever used for non-prophets, or not?

10. Does the term muhaddath (one spoken to by God, though not a prophet) occur in Hadith? And, if so, what is its definition therein?

11. What is the difference between a nabi (prophet) and a muhaddath? Have, or have not, Muslim religious scholars included the muhaddaths amongst the rasul (messengers of God)?

12. Is there, or is there not, evidence in the Holy Qur'an, the Hadith, and the books of the elders of Islam, that God speaks to non-prophets?

13. Can verses of the Holy Qur'an be revealed to the auliya' (holy men of the Muslims), or not? What is the belief of the elders of Islam about this?

14. Has after the Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), any wali (holy man of the Muslims) ever used the word nabi (prophet) metaphorically regarding himself or for his elders?

15. Have, or have not the Muslim Sufis (mystics) used, in their books, the following terms:

Ghair tashri`i nabi, ... non-law-bearing prophet; Zilli nabi, ... shadow of a prophet; Buruzi nabi, ... manifestation of a prophet; Fana fir-rasul, ... one lost in the Holy Prophet?

16. Do the Holy Qur'an and Hadith ever employ metaphor, or not? What is the belief of the Muslim elders?

17. If a person denies the prophethood of any one of the 124,000 prophets (being the total number that appeared, according to Hadith), would you consider him to be a Muslim?


Section 3 [Death of Jesus]:

18. Which verse of the Holy Qur'an says that Jesus ascended to heaven with his earthly body?

19. As, according to you, Jesus has ascended to heaven with his material body, does he eat and drink there, or not? What does the Holy Qur’an say?

20. Jesus' prophecy that the Holy Prophet Muhammad would come after him is quoted in the Holy Qur'an (chapter 61, verse 6). Is there any verse of the Holy Qur'an stating that Jesus would descend from heaven with his physical body after the Holy Prophet Muhammad?

21. If the verse of the Holy Qur'an bal rafa'ahu Allahu ilaihi ("Nay, God exalted him (Jesus) in His presence," chapter 4, verse 158, is taken by you to refer to Jesus' physical ascension to heaven, then what will these words mean after (as you believe) Jesus has descended from heaven? Will they mean Jesus is in heaven or on earth?

22. If, as you believe, Jesus descends to earth from heaven in the latter days, how old would he be then? What do the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith say about this?

23. Since his ascent to heaven, as you believe, has Jesus ever returned to earth with his physical body? What do the Holy Qur'an and Hadith say about this?

24. Jesus' own tongue was not Arabic. So when he descends how will he read the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith as these are in Arabic? Will he learn through Divine Revelation or from Muslim scholars? Please explain from the Holy Qur'an.

25. Will Jesus be favoured with prophetic revelation (wahy nabuwwah) after the Holy Prophet Muhammad, whereas in fact such revelation came to an end with the Holy Prophet?

26. According to the Holy Qur'an, Jesus was a messenger of God sent to the Israelites. If he descends amongst the Muslims in the latter days, after the Holy Prophet Muhammad, then he would be the Seal of the Prophets (Khatam an-nabiyyin) and the last prophet because he would have come after all other prophets. By his coming, would not the Seal of finality of prophethood with the Holy Prophet break?

27. If, in spite of the wording of the "Khatam al-nabiyyin" (Seal of the prophets), verse of the Holy Qur'an, a prophet like Jesus can still come amongst the Muslims then what words of the Arabic language would God have used if He had intended to convey the meaning that no prophet would appear after the Holy Prophet Muhammad?

28. If, in spite of the hadith "la nabiyya ba`di" ("There is no prophet after me"), Jesus can still appear after the Holy Prophet, then what words of the Arabic language would the Holy Prophet have used to say that "There is no prophet after me"?

29. In the hadith, narrated by Nawas bin Sam'an and recorded in the collection of Muslim, about the second advent of the Messiah, the words nabi Allah (prophet of God) are applied to the Messiah four times. What is the interpretation of this term "nabi Allah" in view of the Khatam al-nabiyyin verse of the Holy Quran, and the hadith la nabiyya ba`di?

30. The Holy Qur'an says that on the day of judgement every prophet will be a witness for his nation, and the Holy Prophet Muhammad will be a witness for the Muslim nation. Is not the advent of Jesus amongst the Muslim in the latter days contradicted by this verse?

31. If Jesus, at his second advent, will not be a prophet (nabi) but a follower (ummati) of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, then would this not be against the Quranic verse: "And We sent no messenger but that he should be obeyed by God's command" (4:64), i.e., a prophet is himself a leader, not a follower of another prophet?

32. The istikhlaf verse in the Holy Qur'an (24:55) contains God's promise that, after the Holy Prophet Muhammad, khulafa' (successors) will be raised amongst the Muslims to establish and strengthen Islam, these successors being the likes of the Israelite prophets. Now even if Jesus were to appear amongst the Muslims as a successor to the Holy Prophet, rather than as a prophet, this would, would it not, contradict the above verse which refers to the likes of the Israelite prophets, not actual Israelite prophets?

33. If someone believes that Jesus, like other prophets, is dead, and that all hadith speaking of the descent, or second advent, of the Messiah were fabricated as a result of Magian and Persian religious thought, and that these hadith are contradictory to the true Quranic spirit, is such a person a Muslim or not?


Section 4 [Terms that have been used by Religious Notables]:

34. A large number of Muslim sages and scholars of the past have used the terms referred to in question 15 of Zill, Buruz, etc., in their writings. Were they correct in so doing, or did they try to mislead the Muslims by adopting aspects of Hindu religious thought, or did they aim to serve Islam by using these terms? Why did they use these terms, and what do you think of any other person who uses them? Some of these sages, holy men, and scholars are: Sayyid 'Abdul Qadir Jilani; Shaikh Akbar Muhayyud-din 'Arabi; Shaikh Ahmad of Sirhand, the Mujaddid Alf Thani; Shah Wali Allah, the Muhaddith of Dehlvi; Shah 'Abdul `Aziz; Sayyid Muhammad Isma'il Shahid; etc., etc.

35. The traditionsts and jurists of Islam (muhaddithin and fuqaha) and other Islamic scholars, have coined many terms in fields of Hadith and Jurisprudence. Are these terms un-Islamic because they were coined after the time of the Holy Prophet Muhammad? And, if these terms are Islamic then why are terms coined by the Sufis un-Islamic?

36. There have been thousands of Muslim sages who, having reached the status of fana fir-rasul (utterly lost in the Holy Prophet), have called themselves Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, and Ahmad. Some have even called themselves nabi (prophet) and rasul (messenger of God), and many substituted their own name in the kalimah tayyibah (declaration of faith). For example:

a. Hazrat Sayyid Abdul Qadir Jilani said: "My prophethood was in the concealed knowledge of Allah. I was with the light of the Holy Prophet Muhammad in his lights."

b.. Abu Bakr Shibli, while taking the bai`at from a disciple, told him to recite:

i.e., "There is no god but Allah, Shibli is His Messenger."

c. Similarly, Khwaja Mu'in-ud-Din Chisti told a disciple to recite:

i.e., "There is no god but Allah, Chisti is His Messenger."

d. The Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanavi, in reply to a letter from a disciple of his, told him that he (the disciple) had been acting in accordance with the Sunnah when he had recited:

i.e., "There is no god but Allah, Ashraf 'Ali is His Messenger. O Allah! exalt the master, prophet, and Maulana, Ashraf 'Ali. "

e. The famous Persian mystic, Maulana Jalal-ud-Din Rum has written:

i.e., "for he (the spiritual leader) is the prophet of the age, O disciple, because he clearly manifests the light of prophethood."

f. Hazrat Farid-ud-Din Mas'ud-ul-Ma'ruf of Pak Patan said:

i.e., "I am 'Ali, I am a wali, I am a prophet."

g. The famous Indian Muslim leader of the early nineteenth century, Sayyid Muhammad Isma'il Shahid writes: "The muhaddaths also are called rasul (messengers of God)."


Section 5 [Beliefs of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam]:

37. Every person belonging to the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement believes, unconditionally, that the Holy Prophet Muhammad is the Khatam al-Nabiyyin and the last of the prophets; and that the Imam of the age, the Mujaddid (Reformer) of the fourteenth century of Islam, and the Promised Messiah, viz., Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian did not claim to be a prophet. Hazrat Mirza Sahib declared time and again that "I consider any claimant to prophethood after the Holy Prophet Muhammad, the last of the messengers, to be a liar and disbeliever," and, "I, too, curse the claimant to prophethood."

Every Ahmadi affirms in words, and believes in his heart, the kalimah tayibah, i.e., "There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger"; believes the Holy Qur'an to be the final authority for his material and spiritual guidance; considers compulsory the established institutions of Salat (prayer), Saum (fasting), Zakat (regular charity), and Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah); believes himself to be a devotee and follower of the Holy Prophet Muhammad; and, he is proud to be called a Muslim.

As Hazrat Mirza Sahib was a Reformer for both the formal and the spiritual aspects of Islam (Shari`ah and Tariqiah), he has also used, in his writings, the terms coined by the Sufis which have always been current among them. A person using these terms is not a prophet but a righteous, holy man (wali). Prophethood has terminated with the Holy Prophet Muhammad but sainthood (walayah) continues.

The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement has throughout subscribed to, and publicised, the beliefs given above. If, despite adhering to these beliefs, the members of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement are non-Muslims, then please tell us what characteristic or distinctive mark of being a Muslim is there that you possess which the Ahmadis do not? Further, if you have devised some declaration other than the kalimah tayyibah for converting a person to Islam, then tell us what it is, so that it may be used to make Ahmadis Muslims.

If the Muslim religious leaders, scholars, and theologians, who declare their fellow-Muslims as disbelievers, had been honest, God-fearing, and true well-wishers of Islam and the Muslims, they would have declared it a sin to dub any Muslim as a kafir, instead of themselves calling Muslims as kafirs. Thus the Muslim nation would have been consolidated, the curse of sectarianism lifted for ever, the disruptive issues raised by the religious scholars ended, and there would have been in the world one kalimah and one Islam and one Muslim nation.

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Accusations Answered Section > Some Questions Addressed to Islamic Religious Leaders, Scholars and Theological Experts

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